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Development Case - to - Discrete Effort

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Definition     Editor's Choice
Development Case
The software-engineering process used by the performing organization. It is developed as a configuration, or customization, of the Unified Process product, and adapted to the project's needs. [D04721]

Development Phase
The second of four sequential phases in the generic project life cycle. Also known as planning phase or definition phase. [D00533]

A software life cycle period that contains the activities of requirements analysis, design, coding, integration, testing, integration and acceptance support of software products. [D00532]

 008 -3
Also called the feasibility phase. That part of a project life cycle comprising feasibility studies, if required, planning, engineering or development, after which a capital appropriation request is made, supported by a project brief. See also implementation phase. [D00534]

Development Plan
A plan for moving a project concept to a viable project. [D02843]

Development Process
A set of partially ordered steps performed for a given purpose during software development, such as constructing models or implementing models. [D04722]

A departure from established requirements. Deviations occur when the work product either fails to meet or unnecessarily exceeds the requirements. [D00537]

 002 10-2
Difference (from a project plan, budget, etc.) [D00535]

Written authorization, granted prior to the manufacture of an item, to depart from a particular performance or design requirement of a contract, specification, or referenced document, for a specific number of units or specific period of time. [D00536]

 004 5010.19
Any variation from planned performance. The deviation can be in terms of schedule, cost, performance, or scope of work. Deviation analysis is the heart of exercising project control. [D03716]

 PPS&C p339
The change, plus or minus, from a control estimate or control curve. [D04967]

A noticeable or marked departure from the appropriate norm, plan, standard, procedure, or variable being reviewed. [D05174]

Deviation Permit
See Production Permit [D01296]

A graphical depiction of all or part of a model. [D04825]

See scheduling. [D02661]

See Data Item Description

  1. Elements of disagreement or in dispute, having variations, or otherwise dissimilar, or
  2. The subtraction of one amount from another corresponding amount.

The amounts by which variable quantities differ. [D02663]

Differing Site Conditions
Generally refers to either a subsurface or latent physical condition at the site which differs materially from the conditions shown or indicated in the contract documents. It may also include an unknown physical condition at the site, of an unusual nature, differing materially from conditions generally encountered and recognized as inherent in the work described by the contract documents. [D04968]

Direct Cost Contingency
See Project Direct Cost Contingency. [D03786]

Direct Costs
Costs that are specifically attributable to an activity or group of activities without apportionment. [D04426]

Any cost that is specifically identified with a particular Activity. See also Direct Project Costs [D00538]

Those costs (labor, material, and other direct costs) that can be consistently related to work performed on a particular project. Direct costs are best contrasted with indirect costs that cannot be identified to a specific project. [D00539]

Direct Labor
Labor, i.e. man-hours, that is specifically identified with a particular Activity. [D02308]

Direct Management Approach
A project delivery approach in which the sponsor retains responsibility for project delivery. This includes executing the project management, the design and the construction management functions with his own staff, or by assigning one or more of these three functions to contract services providers, who act as agents of the sponsor. [D06406]

Direct Project Costs
The costs directly attributable to a project, including all personnel, goods and/or services together with all their associated costs, but not including indirect project costs, such as any overhead and office costs incurred in support of the project. [D00540]

The provision of instructions with a view to achieving a project goal or objective. [D02664]

The implementation and carrying out (through others) of those approved plans that are necessary to achieve or exceed project objectives. Generally of such broad and nonspecific nature that considerable judgment must be used in making decisions concerning the scope and frequency of demands. Directing encompasses: training; supervising; delegating; motivating; counseling; and coordinating. [D02666]

The way in which managers pass orders to subordinates. [D02667]

An instruction pursuant to a project objective. [D02665]

A level in a management hierarchy. [D04077]

Refusal to recognize a cost as an allowable cost. [D05971]

Disaster Recovery Planning
A series of processes that focus on recovery processes, principally in response to physical disasters. This activity forms part of business continuity planning, not the totality. [D05972]

An outcome of a change that is perceived as negative by a stakeholder.
Editor's Note: In other words, a detriment. [D05974]

An unfavorable outcome as a result of the program's activities [D05563]

 MSP-UK 1999
Outcomes perceived as negative by one or more stakeholders. Dis-benefits are actual consequences of an activity whereas, by definition, a risk has some uncertainty about whether it will materialize. [D05973]

A body of theory and techniques that must be studied and mastered to be put into practice. [D06407]

 124 p10
A broad general body of knowledge, skills and competence (expertise) that logically belong together and which are required by a company in order to provide its products or service, or to provide other functions necessary for its continued existence. [D03620]

The sequence of activities performed in a business that produces a result of observable value to an individual actor of the business. [D04900]

A field of study and practice requiring special knowledge with or without regulatory standards or limitations. [D05635]

Alternatively: [D05975]

Discipline Maintenance
Ensuring the provision of organizational policies and procedures in the best interests of program or project goals and objectives and ensuring that they are followed [D02668]

Discontinuous Activity
An activity in which the interval between the start and finish dates is allowed to exceed its duration in order to satisfy start-to-start and finish-to-finish relationships with other activities. [D00541]

Discontinuous Processing
This option assigns the discontinuous attribute to all activities for a time analysis session, except where overridden by a specific activity type. [D00542]

Discount Rate
The rate of interest which is used to discount to their present-day value earnings arising in the future. With positive interest rates, a sum of money which is invested will increase in value over time and hence the present value of money is less than its value in the future. The size of the discount rate will affect the appraised viability of those projects to which it is applied. Broadly, the higher the discount rate the lower will be the present value of earnings (or benefits) arising in the future and the greater the negative impacts on project feasibility. The discount rate is determined pragmatically by the sponsor. Ideally it should take account of the sponsor's cost of capital, the rate of inflation, interest rates and rates of return on investments throughout the economy.
Note: There is a difference between "real" discount rates and "nominal" discount rates. Real discount rates are used in conjunction with cash flows which are expressed in terms of present-day money values, with no allowance for price inflation. (The cash flows should, however, allow for increments in future over and above price inflation, e.g. real wage increases.) Nominal discount rates, on the other hand, are higher than real discount rates and are applied to cash flows which make specific allowance for future price inflation at an estimated rate. [D04969]

Discount Value
The annual cost of capital factor applied to a future stream of income and expenditures can be discounted in order to derive a single present value. [D06408]

Discounted Cash Flow ("DCF")
A calculation of present value of a projected cash flow based on some assumed rate of inflation or interest. [D02669]

A method for comparing the relative merits of project investments taking into account the value of money, taxation, varying operating costs, earlier cash returns for reinvestment etc. Also known as Internal Rate of Return. Although theoretically not as sound as Net Present Value, it is easier to present and relate to interest rates on borrowed money. Neither DCF nor NPV takes into account project risks. [D03060]

The process of reducing a future amount of money to a present value. [D02309]

Discrete Effort
Tasks that have a specific measurable end product or end result. Discrete tasks are ideal for earned value measurement. See Work Package. [D00543]

Definitions for page D04: 50

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