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Cardinal - Work not required by the contract, as well beyond the general scope of the contract. The basic legaltest for a cardinal change is whether the type of work is within that contemplated by the parties when the contract was entered into and hence whether the project as modified is significantly different from the project as bid.
Constructive - An act or failure to act by an owner that is not a directed change, but which has the effect of requiring the contractor to perform work beyond that which is required under the terms of the contract.
Unilateral - A change to the contract issued by the owner without the agreement of the contractor as to the cost or timeimpact.