Summary and Conclusions
At least 22 modern project management process can be identified in the Uigwe. Others were likely used though not specifically identified. Modern processes such as with Time, Procurement and Risk are not found, likely because they were not part of practice 200 years ago. This may explain the large variance between the estimated completion date and the actual completion date. The Uigwe provides no evidence as to how the time estimates were arrived at.
Because a substantial number of modern project management processes can be found in the Uigwe it is clear that these transcend time. What made the Hwaseong Fortress project different was the philosophy that "projects are executed by people". Thus the premise that people management must be an imperative value of project management to deliver a successful project was recognized and applied by King Jeongjo.
That effective communication was in place in the Hwaseong Seongyok Uigwe was also a critical success factor. Although formal project management did not exist during the reign of King Jeongjo, yet he was able to successfully apply the rudiments of project management. This is testimony to the intuitive nature of the project management philosophy. From what we understand today, it also demonstrates the long-term viability of project management.
The question is, can we use this 200-year comparison to project the course of project management into the future?