Daemun (Main Gate)
There are four main gates in the fortress, namely, Janganmun (Northern Gate), Paldalmun (Southern Gate), Hwaseomun (Western Gate) and Changyongmun (Eastern Gate). Janganmun, the north gate of the Hwaseong Fortress, is the largest of the existing main gates. The word Jangan means a capital, illustrating King Jeongjo's intention to make Hwaseong a major city. To symbolize the dignity of a royal family, a two-storied building was constructed and Ongseong, a small brick tower, was erected to protect the gate. It was also designed so that water could be poured through five holes called Oseongji on the upper side of Ongseong in case enemies tried to burn the gate.
Figure 6: Buk-Daemun Janganmun
Paldalmun is the south gate of the Hwaseong Fortress. The name means "open roads in every direction". The stone rainbow-style gate was wide enough for a king's visits accompanied by horses and sedan chairs, and above the gate a second-story structure was built. A low fence was erected around the upper story of the castle gate, a semi-circular castle called Ongseong was built outside the gate, and Jeokdae, a gate guard platform, was constructed to repel enemies.
A Jeokdae is a turret intended to thwart attackers advancing towards the front of the main gate of a fortress. A pair of Jeokdae was setup at two of the main gates, Janganmun gate and Paldalmun gate.
Figure 7: Night view of Paldalmun
Figure 8: Inside view of Daemun
Ammun (Secret Gate)
Ammun is a secret gate located between the main gates. It is usually in a secluded spot unlikely to be found by enemies and is a very important facility for supplying people, farm animals, carts, foods, ammunitions and weapons to the fortress during wartime. The arch of the gate was built of bricks. There are 5 Ammun (Secret Gates), which are Namammun (Southern), Dongammun (Eastern), Bukammun (Northern), Seoammun (Western) and Seonammun (Southwestern).
Figure 9: Secret gate
Sumun (Water Gate)
Two water gates were built over the Suwoncheon, a stream running through the middle of the fortress from north to south. The structure is of granite construction and iron grids are placed at each of the water gates to prevent invasion from outside. The North Water Gate, see Figure 10, is located below the Banghwasuryujeong. It is called Hwahongmun, which means "beautiful rainbow-colored gate".
Figure 10: Buk-Sumun: Hwahomngmun
This gate was constructed over a stream by broadening Suwoncheon, which flows through the Hwaseong Fortress, and consists of a bridge with seven arches. Above this gate, a multi-story building was erected. Hwahongmun also played the role of a bridge, connecting villages from the either side of the stream. A bower on the stream was used as a resting area for the people and facilities were equipped with cannons to protect the fortress.