King Jeongo, the 22nd king in Chosun dynasty presided over the construction of the Hwaseong Fortress during the years 1794 to 1796. When the future King Jeongjo was 10 years old, his father Crown Prince Sado was killed by his grandfather the reigning King YoungJo as part of a political struggle. Upon ascending to the throne after King Youngjo, the new King Jeongjo initiated the process to memorialize his late father by having his tomb moved from Baebongsan in Yangju to Hwasan, However, this plan was not without obstacles.
A government office building and private homes occupied the site that was selected for construction. Thus, besides funding the project other monies were needed to offset the cost of displacement. Therefore King Jeongjo could not unilaterally act without generating public unrest.
As a solution, King Jeongjo uncovered a plan advocated in a book written by a scholar named Yoo Hyungwon. The book "Bangyesurok" provided the argument of filial piety as justification for the construction of a new planned city to be called Hwaseong Fortress. It enabled King Jeongjo to strengthen his royal authority. King Jeongjo believed that increasing the power of a central authority would have the effect of marginalizing competing power groups. He believed that the excessive power concentrated on groups such as Noron Byuckpa thwarted the country's growth.
The Hwaseong Fortress project was to be a milestone in this political process. In order to establish the Hwaseong Fortress and the King's family as bona fide authorities for Chosun, King Jeongjo planned to move to Hwaseong Fortress after abdicating the throne to his son King Soonjo. Unfortunately King Jeongjo died before his political dream would come true.