As a result of the study, we discovered that changes included into the 2004
have deviated from the historical perspective of the PMBOK® Guide. Consequently,
the changes do not help us to better understand the previous 2000 Edition. For
textual and conceptual changes include:
- Text volume of the 2004 Edition has increased 68% in comparison to the 2000 Edition
(see Table 2)
- The 2004 Edition introduces content changes at the output/input level. For example,
the added text describes changed process content and context compared to preceding
editions. As evidence:
The 2004 Edition introduces conceptual changes compared to preceding
editions of the Guide. This implies a changed understanding of the whole structure.
- The increased number of inputs has changed the contents and context of input process
sets. Implicitly, this changes the content and context of the output process sets.
As a result, none of the 2004 Edition input sets are the same as in the 2000 Edition.
And only three sets of outputs are the same in both editions (see Tables 1
- With the number of outputs increasing by 60% from the previous edition, a real
problem has arisen in the restructuring of the sets of output processes. As a result
of restructuring we find ninety-eight reappearances of outputs with the same name,
more than four times those in the previous edition. Out of all outputs in the 2004
Edition, 55% are repeated outputs that are created with different sets of inputs,
implying that in practice they are not the same, but different.
- A powerful output/input concept that has been consistently applied in preceding
editions assumes that an output created in an earlier process is used as an input
in a later process or processes. For example, in the 2000 Edition, the component "Project
plan" is created by taking the results of other planning processes and putting them
into the plan. However, in the 2004 Edition, many processes from the Planning Process
Group already contain "Project management plan" as an input, e.g., Input 126.96.36.199 (Project
management plan). The output from that process
flows into Process 4.3 (Develop Project Management Plan) to take a part in generation
of Output 188.8.131.52 (Project management plan).
This results in an invalid process loop.
- The 2004 Edition also uses other output/input approaches that make the sequence
difficult to follow. For example, an output that has been generated for the first
time should not have the suffix "updates", e.g., Output 184.108.40.206 Cost management plan
- If a component has to be used as an input, it must be generated as an output in
a preceding process or in a previous iteration of a subsequent process. However, there
are inputs that may not be ready to be used as inputs, e.g. Input 220.127.116.11 (Contract).
The component "Contract" cannot be used here as an input because "Contract" is generated
as an output in Process 12.4 (Select Sellers).
This process is a part of the Executing Process Group while Process 7.2 (Cost Budgeting)
is a part of the Planning Process Group.
Therefore, "Contract" cannot be an input to Process 7.2 (Cost Budgeting).
- If a component is to be used as an input, it must first be generated in full as
an earlier output. However, there are partially accomplished outputs that cause invalid
process loops. For example, Input 18.104.22.168 (Project management plan) should not contain
suffix "Activity cost estimates" at this time. This specific content of "Project management
plan" passes from Process 6.4 (Activity Duration Estimating) to Process 6.5 (Schedule
Development) to Process 7.1 (Cost Estimating) and back to Process 6.4 (Activity Duration
Estimating). To develop Output 22.214.171.124
(Activity cost estimates) we need Input 126.96.36.199 (Project management plan), which contains
suffix "Schedule management plan". This input comes as an Output 188.8.131.52 (Project
management plan) from Process 6.5 (Schedule Development). Finally, to develop this
output we need Input 184.108.40.206 (Activity duration estimates), which is developed as
an output of Process 6.4 (Activity Duration Estimating). There is also the case where
a process contains the same components within input and output, e.g., the component
"Deliverables" from Process 4.6 (Integrated Change Control).
6. Ibid, pp105
7. The PMBOK® Guide Third Edition, pp79, 89
8. Ibid, pp159, 167
9. Ibid, pp159, 168
10. Ibid, pp272
11. Ibid, pp70
12. Ibid, pp125, 159
13. Ibid, pp79, 98-99