A paper presented to the International Seminar on Project Management for Developing Countries, September 4 to 6, 1991, in New Delhi, India. The audience was made up of mostly construction people, but much of the following content could equally apply to large projects in other areas of application.

Executive Summary  | Index | Part 1 | Part 2 | Conclusions | References

Schedule and Cost

Similarly, specific questions can be posed regarding schedule and cost. For example: Do project plans include a milestone schedule indicating major pieces of work to be accomplished, and who will be responsible for each?

Are project schedule time estimates and logic developed using input from members of the project team, in order to build in commitment? Are they prepared using a structured breakdown consistent with the work breakdown structure, such that cost and schedule can be correlated?

Are project schedules allowing sufficient time to get the work done right the first time, and without causing overruns? And when changes are made during project implementation, are corresponding changes made to the schedule to accommodate these changes?

The cost situation should be similarly examined, and the direct impacts on the cost situation of any changes in the schedule also recognized. Thus typical cost questions should include: Is the estimate realistic, including both direct and indirect costs of all required resources, or have any changes taken place since, in terms of the project's parameters or the external environment, which might require its re-evaluation?

Has a benefit/cost analysis been conducted for inclusion in the project brief as part of the project's justification, and is project financing soundly based?

Has the estimate been converted satisfactorily into a budget against which costs can be readily assigned in the manner in which they have to be collected? Are all relevant costs being collected and faithfully allocated, and are cost estimates of the remaining or outstanding work being prepared on a regular basis so that forecasts of the eventual final total cost can be compared to the total budget, as a primary management control tool?

Scope and Quality  Scope and Quality

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