Introduction to Part 2
Modern project management is generally considered to be encompassed
by the integration of eight functional areas. These include the
four core or constraint functions of scope, quality, time and cost,
and four integrative and interactive functions of risk, human resources,
contract/procurement and information/communications management.
Each function tends to require a separate skill set, so that on
a larger project, or in the larger project management organization,
responsibilities naturally tend to be grouped accordingly for their
proper conduct. Consequently, the investigative format of a project
management appraisal also more readily follows these functional
The sequence in which these functions are listed above is significant
because of their dynamic relationship. The sequence parallels both
the progressive flow of information as well as the flow of work
through the project management process. The information flow represents
what is managed, while the process flow reflects how
it is managed. Since projects should be planned moving progressively
down the list, projects in the planning phases might well have the
first four functional areas examined first. For projects in the
implementation phases, on the other hand, the latter four functions
might be given priority, and in the reverse order.
The content of the questions to be raised will also be highly dependent
upon the particular phase of the project in which the PMA is being
conducted, and therefore should be structured accordingly.
For example, the content of technological questions under a PMA
conducted early in the implementation phase of a construction project
would focus on the availability and adequacy of information to carry
out detailed design efficiently, or to commence construction activities
productively. Similarly, technological issues to be raised just
prior to commissioning would likely cover quality assurance records,
validation of equipment and system check-off, dry-runs and so on.
The following discussion is intended to give an indication of the
issues that might be looked at, both in terms of the function under
consideration, and the phase that the particular project has reached.