The original version of this paper was presented at the Project Management Institute's 28th Annual Seminar & Symposium, Chicago, Illinois, September 29, 1997. It was subsequently updated and reproduced on this web site in November 2000.

Republished here April 2023.

Introduction | We are Not Alone | What Basis? | Models | Concept Mapping
PMKS Theme | Objectives | Assumptions | Exclusion | Starting Point | Conclusions
Appendix A | Appendix B

Appendix A
Knowledge Structure - Universal Project Management Practice

UNIVERSAL PRACTICE [Peer: Provides concepts to Client Environment; Provides practices to project Integration] & [Has as primary concepts...]

Client Environment [Peer: Determines Area of project management Application; Communicates requirements as Commitment; includes Uncertainty; Has perpetual impact on Real Time; Has goals for success] & [Consists of...]

Culture, attitudes, and other limitations of the type of sponsoring organization, location and country

Vision, business, economics

Impacts and limitations of the technology or technologies vested in the project

Activity-specific vocabulary

Commitment [Peer: Impacts Client Environment; Responds to Uncertainty; Applies to Management Processes; Imposes constraints on Project Integration] & [Consists of four interactive variables...]

Project Scope Management** [Peer: Ties to Quality; Time; Cost] & [Has outputs...]

Definition of the project's products

Changes to the definitions of the project's products

Project Quality Management** [Peer: Ties to Scope; Time; Cost] & [Has outputs...]

Definition of the Quality "Grade" of the project's products, and changes thereto

Conforming to requirements

Project Time Management** [Peer: Ties to Scope; Quality; Cost] & [Has outputs...]

Schedules, milestones, forecasting time to completion, delivery date

Project Cost Management** [Peer: Ties to Scope; Quality; Time] & [Has outputs...]

Estimating, budgeting, cost containment, final cost forecasting, Earned Value, Life-cycle Costing

Project Integration [Peer: Matches Area of Application; Reports progress as Commitment; Affects Management Processes; Has management impact on Real Time; Impacts on Success] & [Has subparts...]

Human Resource Management** [Peer: Ties to Work; Comms; Info] & [Has outputs...]

Temporary team work, e.g. assembling people, team building, motivating, developing ownership, negotiating, empowering the people responsible for component parts, resolving conflicts, disbanding team upon completion

Managing the work of the project [Peer: Ties to H/R; Comms; Info] & [Has outputs...]

Assembling material resources, facilitating production, productivity, assuring correct interfacing (i.e. Scope of Work), method study

Communication Management** [Peer: Ties to H/R; Work; Info] & [Has outputs...]

Listening, directing, reporting, messaging, personal intercommunication, conducting meetings, fellowship, public relations, disclosure, accord

Information management [Peer: Ties to H/R; Work; Comms] & [Has outputs...]

Data collection, distribution, visibility, storage, and retrieval

Uncertainty [Peer: Creates opportunity for Client Environment; Is perpetual in Real Time; Creates risk to Commitment] & [Has sub-parts...]

Opportunity Management [Peer: Is reciprocal of Risk] & [Has outputs...]

Market watch, needs analysis, public surveys, creativity

Risk Management** [Peer: Is reciprocal of Opportunity] & [Has outputs...]

Risk identification, assessment, mitigation, response plan

Management Processes [Peer: Applies to Commitment; Impacts Real Time; Uses Project Integration] & [Has sub-parts...]

Overviewing and "Strategizing" the project [Has outputs...]

Visioning, developing goals and objectives, identifying a compelling reason, leading, optimizing project effectiveness and efficiency, performance standards

Procurement Management** [Has outputs...]

External resourcing (Formal, legal contracting)

Internal resourcing (Negotiating internal resource commitments)

Control management [Has outputs...]

Planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, monitoring, analyzing, estimating and forecasting future states up to the conclusion of the project, corrective action, leading and supervising

Other techniques and tools

Computer modeling, replacement theory, systems analysis, value management

Real Time (Life Cycle) [Peer: Imposes management sequence on Commitment; Affects Success; Has sequential impact on Project Integration; Is situational for Management Processes] & [Has sub-parts...]

Perpetual [Uses...]

Conditions imposed by the sponsoring organization throughout the project

Sequential [Uses...]

Genesis (modes) of project management: First Plan, then Produce

Generic periods (major phases): Concept; Development; Execution; Finishing

Logical or optimal sequence of Programs, projects, phases, stages, milestones, activities and tasks

Situational or cyclical [Uses...]

Timing determined by management process requirements

Success [Peer: Impacts on Client Environment; Provides goals for Project Integration; Is post-project in Real Time] & [Responds to...]

Factors implicit in the client's organization

Capturing and distinguishing between client or sponsor's needs and wants

Identifying measurable indicators of project success as part of the project's Concept

Matching management people, style and processes to product production

Establishing the "Quality Grade" and content that will engender eventual satisfaction

Effective and efficient transfer of the project's product(s) upon completion


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