In classifying my material, some overlap between ESA functions was to be expected.
For example, the coding of the work breakdown structure, which represents the
Scope of work, is essentially a Communication device. Similarly, contingency
management as part of Cost Management also includes contingency planning i.e.
"Planning Alternatives" under Time Management. However, as the exercise
advanced, another interesting aspect began to emerge.
Figure 7: The practice of Communications: project facilitation [RMW 1985]
I observed that certain key words appear in several ESA Management Functions.
For instance, Scope, as well as being an ESA management function itself also
appears in Cost and Time Management. Procedures appear in Cost, Time and Communications
Management. Yet Quality Management which is just jam packed with procedures,
doesn't give the word a mention. Policies on the other hand appears in Human
Resources, Time and Scope Management. Funny thing, I was always taught that you
couldn't establish an effective procedure without enunciating a governing policy.
Conversely, a policy is useless without a procedure to implement it!
Monitor and Control appear as major subsets of both Cost and. Time Management
but only Monitor appears under Scope Management. Yet controlling scope is the
single most important factor in avoiding undesirable cost and schedule overruns.
What all these particular words have in common is that they are all part of
the process of good management. That is to say they are distinct
from specific functional content. Since ESA is concerned with the management
of a number of functions, it follows that each of these processes applies to
In short, the systemized project management process of plan-organize-execute-monitor-and-control
applies to each and every ESA function.
Figure 8: The Function-Process-Time interrelationship in project management.
This diagram shows the connection which makes project management both universally
applicable and unique to all project work.
(From Cost Control of Capital Projects, by R. Max Wideman, 1983, p7)