Wikipedia Definitions of Project and Operations Management
"Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing, managing,
leading, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals. A project is a temporary
endeavor with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often
constrained by funding or deliverables),
undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives,
typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature
of projects stands in contrast with business as usual (or operations),
which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce
products or services. In practice, the management of these two systems is often
quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills
and management strategies.
"The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the preconceived constraints. The primary constraints are scope, time, quality and budget. The secondary -and more ambitious- challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and integrate them to meet pre-defined objectives."
"Operations management is an area of management concerned with overseeing, designing, and controlling the process of production and redesigning business operations in the production of goods and/or services. It involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient in terms of using as few resources as needed, and effective in terms of meeting customer requirements. It is concerned with managing the process that converts inputs (in the forms of materials, labor, and energy) into outputs (in the form of goods and/or services).
"The relationship of operations management to senior management in commercial contexts can be compared to the relationship of line officers to highest-level senior officers in military science. The highest-level officers shape the strategy and revise it over time, while the line officers make tactical decisions in support of carrying out the strategy. In business as in military affairs, the boundaries between levels are not always distinct; tactical information dynamically informs strategy, and individual people often move between roles over time.
"According to the U.S. Department of Education, operations management is the field concerned with managing and directing the physical and/or technical functions of a firm or organization, particularly those relating to development, production, and manufacturing. Operations management programs typically include instruction in principles of general management, manufacturing and production systems, plant management, equipment maintenance management, production control, industrial labor relations and skilled trades supervision, strategic manufacturing policy, systems analysis, productivity analysis and cost control, and materials planning., Management, including operations management, is like engineering in that it blends art with applied science. People skills, creativity, rational analysis, and knowledge of technology are all required for success."
7. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_management
8. Chatfield, Carl. A short course in project management, Microsoft
9. Nokes, Sebastian The Definitive Guide to Project Management, 2nd Edn. London (Financial Times / Prentice Hall): 2007. ISBN 978-0-273-71097-4
10. Dinsmore, Paul C. et al The right projects done right! John Wiley and Sons, 2005. ISBN 0-7879-7113-8. p.35 and further.
11. Ireland, Lewis R. Project Management. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006. ISBN 0-07-147160-X. p.110.
12. Phillips, Joseph (2003). PMP Project Management Professional Study Guide. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2003. ISBN 0-07-223062-2 p.354.
13. Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge 4th Edn p.27-35
14. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operations_management
15. U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences: Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP). Retrieved on October 26, 2009 from CIP 2000 - CIP Lookup to Occupational Crosswalks
16. ATMAE Membership Venn Diagram