Aaron J. Shenhar, Stevens Institute of Technology,
Hoboken, NJ 07030 USA, and R. Max Wideman.
A paper presented to the PICMET'97 conference "Innovation in Technology Management:
The Key to Global Leadership", Portland, Oregon, USA, July 1997 (Updated for
web 2002). Presented here as the third in a series linking project type through
management style to project success.
Published here February 2002.
How the Matrix might relate to a Spectrum of Management Style
It is a common experience that different people respond to different styles
of leadership, yet there appears to be little agreement on how people should
be classified. Typically, they are classified in different ways for specific
Still, there does seem to be general agreement that some people respond better
to being told what to do, while others respond better when allowed to think more
for themselves. Intuitively, one suspects that the former aligns more with craftwork
by way of training. The latter aligns more with intellectual work where people
have more opportunity to educate themselves. These differences are readily brought
to mind by comparing the differences in management required for, say, a software
project and a construction project. This relationship is the subject of a subsequent