Aaron J. Shenhar, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 USA, and R. Max Wideman. A paper presented to the PICMET'97 conference "Innovation in Technology Management: The Key to Global Leadership", Portland, Oregon, USA, July 1997 (Updated for web 2002). Presented here as the third in a series linking project type through management style to project success. Published here February 2002.

## Putting Together a Matrix

At first glance it may appear that craftwork is simply the requirement of tangible projects, and intellect work is the requirement of intangible projects. However, a moment's thought will reveal the possibility of both tangible-intellect projects as well as intangible-craft projects. This 2x2 matrix is shown in Figure 2. The following will provide greater clarity of the differences between the resulting four types of project

 Type of Work in the Project Intellect Example: Development of an all-new electric car Example: Development of a new theory Craft Example: Detailing and construction of a building Example: Updating a procedures manual Tangible Intangible Type of Product from the Project

#### A. Tangible-Intellect Project

A tangible project involves the creation and assembly of a new piece of hardware or other material product. It is something that has not been done before. It is typically subject to 'linear logic', but requires iterations to achieve the ultimate goal. These projects may be costly, and the resources required are not very predictable. An example of the Tangible-Intellect project would be the development of an all-new electric car.

#### B. Intangible-Intellect Project

An intangible-intellect project requires a non-repetitive creative effort to develop new intellectual property, e.g. a new plan or piece of information. No linear logic is involved, but iterations will be needed before satisfactory completion. These projects are probably relatively less costly, but the resources are highly unpredictable simply because brainwork is involved and they have never been done before. An example of an Intangible-Intellect project would be the development of a new theory, or the writing of a book.

#### C. Intangible-Craft Project

An intangible-craft project does involve the assembly of a physical entity, but the value of the product is in its content, not the article itself. The project likely involves copying and updating from a previous version. There should be no need for iterations, as the previous version should provide the basis for learning. Linear logic is not required and resource requirements are predictable. Examples might be the conduct of the annual plant maintenance shutdown, or the updating of the associated procedures manual.

#### D. Tangible-Craft Project

A tangible-craft project involves the creation of a physical artifact that results from craftwork that is essentially repetitive in nature. The work is subject to linear logic, and learning curves in the pursuit of satisfactory productivity in the building of the artifact. These projects are usually costly, but the resources are predictable and controllable.

Although mock-ups may be entertained to facilitate planning, iterations are not required. In fact 'iterations' are viewed as unproductive and undesirable 're-work'. Examples of a Tangible-Craft project would be the detailing and construction of a building, or the nominal changes to last year's gasoline car for this year's 'latest model'. Figure 3 summarizes these characteristics for each type of project in the matrix.

 Type of Work in the Project Intellect (Requires education) Characteristic: - Not done before - Subject to linear logic - Requires iterations - Resources less predictable Characteristic: - non-repetitive, first of its kind - Creative effort - Minimal repetition - Resources unpredictable - Exploratory Result: Development of new physical artifact Result: Development of new piece of intellectual property Examples: New invention, device; All-new "mouse-trap"; New product from R&D Examples: New book, poem, music, movie, etc: New algorithm, theory, idea; New technology process; New software Craft (Requires training) Characteristic: - Much repetitive effort - Linear logic applies - Learning curve effects - Learn by doing - Resources predictable - Relatively high cost   involved Characteristic: - Based on previous model - No iterations, only corrections - Learn by repetition - Physical format required   only for distribution - Resources predictable - Relatively low reproduction   cost Result: Typical physical artifact Result: Typical piece of intellectual property Examples: Typical new physical plant, infrastructure, or product, e.g. building; utility; car; appliance Examples: Typical system, software upgrades, etc. Policies, procedures manual; Plan for factory shut-down Tangible (Value is in the entity) Intangible (Value is in the content) Type of Product from the Project