This paper was presented to a conference on "The Project Management Information Society", May 14-16, 1995, in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. It was given at a time when the idea of a Canadian project management institute was being promoted.

Published November 2001

Introduction  | Client-Server | Leadership | Project Life Cycle
Team Building | Skills |  Knowledge | PMI•Canada | Conclusions

Leadership and the Project Life Cycle

It is clear that leadership is important to the success of a project because leadership is essentially about motivating people. It is also clear that what may be characterized as "managership" is equally important because this is about getting things done. Can the two be reconciled? For this it is necessary to turn to a fundamental principle underpinning the concept of project management.

Project management is a structured but flexible process for producing a new end result. Its success depends on the application of a two step sequence: First plan - then produce. This is the genesis of every successful project life cycle.

For example, in the "planning" phases of a project, the project leader conducts the project team and other main stakeholders through formal and informal decision making in order to achieve agreed goals and objectives. This process involves a high degree of interaction and formulation of organizational strategies. It takes time and is challenging. The development of the resulting technical requirements may require a number of iterations and re-runs. This is especially true at the outset, in order to flush out the "customer's needs". Therefore, "visioning", "intelligence gathering" and developing "a compelling reason" and "appropriate strategies", are the all-important issues. These issues also form the essential basis for effective team development.

In this, project management is near-unique. For while a CEO or other enterprise leader may develop his "team" once (or so) in his/her tenure, the project leader must be conscious of the "Project Team Development Cycle" for every project and throughout the project life cycle. Thus, planning is about optimizing the effectiveness of the project and its results, i.e. "doing the right things".

On the other hand, the real work of task execution gets done in the "producing" phases. In these phases, the paramount requirement is an ability to satisfy the customer(s) by conducting the efforts of the project team towards the required product(s) under typical project constraints. This is achieved by consistently "getting the message out", which also provides the essential basis for project control. Thus, producing, or management of production, is about optimizing the project process, i.e. "doing the things right".

To get a project off to a good start, the project manager must be a leader, but this style of leadership does need to change as the project progresses through its life cycle. Indeed, there comes a point in time when "managership" is more important than "leadership". It will be observed that "information" (intelligence gathering) in the planning phases, and "communications" (getting the message out) in the producing phases, i.e. intercommunication, is an essential skill for both the project leader and the project manager. Table 2 shows this progression from leader to manager in greater detail.

Phase

Major Attributes/Emphasis

Leadership Style/Blend

Feasibility Study
(Pre-formulation)

•  Sense of vision
•  "Big Picture" (conceptual)
•  Analysis

•  Visionary
•  Creates future
•  Empowerment
•  Expansive

Conceptual
(Formulation)

•  Listening
•  Analysis
•  Alignment

•  Analytical
•  Listener
•  Change master
•  Convergence

Development

•  Participative/Acceptance
   and commitment
•  Cooperative

•  Team builder
•  Power and influence
•  Integrator

Execution

•  Re-alignment

•  Decision maker
•  Balances work and fun
•  Trustworthiness
•  Team and synergy

Finishing

•  Transfer of product and information

•  Administrator
•  Closure

Table 2 Leadership and the project life cycle

In Figure 3 we shows how the progression in Table 2 relates to the typical major tasks of the project life cycle, and corresponding organizational strategies.

Figure 3: The evolution of tasks and people through the project life cycle

Figure 3: The evolution of tasks and people through the project life cycle
The Need for Leadership  The Need for Leadership

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