Original version of this paper presented at
The Project Management Institute
1999 Conference in Philadelphia, Pa.
Revised February 2002.
Published here April 2002.
Required Project Management Approach
Let us now look at the different approaches that are necessary to manage
each of the nine basic types of project.
- Administrative: Teambuilding and refinement of objectives are important
on administrative projects where some or all of the team may be part-timers.
- Construction: Construction projects generally run smoothly since the
staff are all experienced and know their jobs. Control of labor hours and cost
control is important for the contractor on lump sum type contracts.
- Computer Software Development: Tight project control is necessary
on software projects in which other factors may be quite loose. The project
manger needs to be ready to adapt to changing requirements from the client.
- Design of Plans: Because the scope and activities necessary for development
of plans may be fuzzy it is all the more important to have a detailed project
management system to adapt to changes as they occur.
- Equipment or System Installation: This is a case of thinking through
all contingencies ahead of time and being sure that all involved are heading
in the right direction.
- Event: Detailed planning and good teambuilding are important in these
complex projects where timing is critical.
- Maintenance of Process Industries: With hundreds of workers involved
in three shifts per day where a reduction of one day can be worth a million
dollars, detailed planning and control is essential.
- New Product Development: The business of managing a diverse group
of various technical specialists in a matrix organization to meet quality and
time objectives on a complex project is demanding. Good project management is
- Research: Project management can be relaxed on long lead-time research
projects but it is all the more necessary to set goals, and to measure progress
against those goals.