Published here July 2002.

Introduction  | Leader  | Project Management | Project Manager's Skills 
Project Manager's Types of Leadership | Servant Leadership
Ten Characteristics of a Servant-Leader | Characteristics Compared 
Project Management by a Servant Leader | Risks & Benefits | References


Project managers need to be leaders. Robbins (2001, p.313) states that leaders must cope with change. They set the vision, the goals, and assist the organization in attaining those vision and goals. How do we know who the leaders are? Leaders are noticed by the way they participate in groups. They usually challenge the way things are done and look for ways to achieve excellence. Leaders influence others. They motivate people to achieve something beyond their expectations.

There are two types of leaders-transactional and transformational. According to Robbins (2001) the transactional leaders "guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements" (p.329). The transformational leaders "inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization, and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on his or her followers" (p. 329).


What is the role of a manager? Robbins (2001) describes a manager as an "individual who achieves goals through other people" (p.2). Robbins also says that management takes place in organizations, which are "consciously coordinated social units, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals" (p.2). Management responsibilities include planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. In the 1960's, Henry Mintzberg defined 10 roles that management exhibited as they did their jobs.

These roles are described as part of three groups that include interpersonal, information and decisional roles. They are listed below as described by Mintzberg: (Robbins, 2001, p.3-4)

  • Interpersonal - figurehead, leader, liaison
  • Informational-monitoring, dissemination of information, spokesperson
  • Decisional-initiating and overseeing new projects, conflict resolution, resource allocation, and negotiating.

This list is not complete. There are other roles to be described later in this critique.

Introduction  Introduction

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