A paper based on the Instructor's Resource Kit, Module 1, Managing the Implementation of Development Projects, by Jerry Brown under the direction of John Didier, World Bank Institute, Washington D.C., 1998. Robert Youker may be reached at bobyouker@worldnet.att.net
and John Didier at jdidier@worldbank.org.
Published here April 2003.

Abstract | Introduction | Hierarchy of Objectives | The Why-How Framework
Another Example | Strategic Alternatives | Horizontal Logic | Summary | Conclusions


The methodology that I am about to introduce was developed as a means of clarifying project objectives, both for planning purposes and for post-project evaluation. The hierarchy of objectives, which some development agencies refer to as the logical framework or "logframe", serves a number of purposes:

  1. It can be used to clarify the need, i.e. demand for the project.
  2. It can be used to clarify the requirements for meeting that need.
  3. It provides a way of communicating the project objectives to everyone involved in the project.
  4. It helps ensure appropriate project design by getting input and feedback from the people who are involved in, or affected by, the project.
  5. It enables the post-project evaluators to measure the project's success in attaining its objectives because the hierarchy provides guidance to the evaluators and helps direct their inquiry.
  6. It demonstrates that the project has different levels of objectives, and clarifies how the different objectives relate to one another in the hierarchy.
  7. It serves as a visible link between organizational strategy, programs and projects.

Studies focusing on project success and failure have repeatedly shown how important it is for the project manager to get a common understanding of project objectives. It is essential for project staff, beneficiaries, and other stakeholders to develop agreement and a joint commitment to those objectives. Some experts believe this is the most important issue in project management.

To get joint commitment, we need shared perceptions. Everyone has to share the common understanding of the objectives, and agree that the project is worth doing. This doesn't happen automatically. It takes effort and involves a considerable amount of communication.

Abstract  Abstract

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