Table 1: Stuckenbruck's project phase actions
In this table we see clear signs of the evolutionary nature of a project and the purpose of establishing a project life span model. Stuckenbruck then establishes a second purpose by observing
"This book is primarily concerned with the actions that take place during implementation of a project, which is a combination of the concept or initiation phase and the growth or organization phase. It is often useful to divide the project into phases as shown in Figure 1-2. This scheme of phases fits projects such as construction, and by plotting the phases versus total effort, a very clear picture can be obtained as to where the money goes."
Stuckenbruck's Figure 1-2 is shown in Figure 3.
Given the different interpretations of "implementation" we may question Stuckenbruck's use of this word. Is it the "execution phase", or is it the launching of the entire project? The contents of Table 1 suggest the latter. While on the subject of word meanings, program management and project management were often considered back then to be one and the same, as Stuckenbruck states "For the purposes of this book, the words project and program are considered to be synonymous."
Figure 3: Stuckenbruck's effort-loaded life spans
PMI followed this publication with a series of monographs or mini handbooks. One, by Cavendish and Martin, described the relationship between contracting and the project life span, that is, the life span from a general contractor's perspective. The authors point out that for the contractor, the project starts with contract award and hence coincides with the implementation phase. This is an important point because many diehard project people, i.e. those from the contracting fraternity, do not consider that there is a "real" project to manage until it exists under a contract. Cavendish and Martin's project life span is shown in Figure 4 (1982).
Figure 4: Cavendish and Martin's contract project life span
For the record, in a text that was little recognized at the time, this author attempted to distinguished between the corporate business life cycle, the facility/product life cycle and the project life cycle. Figure 5 shows the graphic that accompanied the descriptive text in PMI's first Project Management Body of Knowledge publication (1987). This is perhaps the first formal recognition that projects always exist in an encompassing "environment", be it the government, private or non-profit sectors. However, Webster later picked up this idea in The Handbook of Project Management (1993) as shown in Figure 6.
Figure 5: Wideman's corporate business, facility/product and project life spans compared
Figure 6: Webster's comparison of project and product life spans
7. Archibald, R. D., Managing High-Technology Programs and Projects, R. D. Archibald, Wiley, NY, 1976, p19. This book is now in its Third Edition, 2003.
8. Ibid, p22.
9. Stuckenbruck, Dr. L. C., Editor, The Implementation of Project Management, Project Management Institute, PA, Wiley, 1981, pp2-3.
10. Ibid, p2.
11. Cavendish, P., & Dr. M. D. Martin, Negotiating & Contracting for Project Management, Project Management Institute, PA, 1982, p14.
12. Wideman, R. M., Chairman, PMBOK Standards Board, The Framework Part 1 The Rationale, Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), Project Management Institute, PA, 1987, p1-1.
13. Webster, Dr. F. M., What Project Management Is All About, chapter 1 of The Handbook of Project Management edited by Paul C. Dinsmore, Amacom, NY, 1993, p8.