A paper presented to the first Engineering Congress, The Institution of Engineers, India - Calcutta, January 1987

Introduction | Definition | Traditional | Hard-Soft | Environment
Characteristics | Concepts | Control | Breakdown | Fundamentals
Prerequisites | Summary | Appendix A | Appendix B

Appendix B

Program/Project Management in Various Management Endeavors

Project Category Class 1 - Construction; Shipbuilding; Aerospace

(NB: All using established technology)

Project Objective

  • Design and construct a physical facility
  • Design and build a ship
  • Design and manufacture an aerospace product

Strategy and Plans

Strategy for:

  • Financing
  • Contracting
  • Technical specifications
  • Timing

Plans for:

  • Financing
  • Schedule
  • Technical development
  • Contracting
  • Sale/transfer

Organization

Temporary:

  • Coordination of contractors
  • Liaison with future users, government, etc.
  • Transfer to owner/user/client

Permanent:

  • Not applicable to program/project management

Implementation

  • Coordination of a great number of organizations and individuals to ensure schedule completion
  • Control expenditures to avoid overruns

Control of

  • Technical progress
  • Schedule
  • Costs
  • Revenue

Project Category Class 2 Rural Development

Project Objective

  • Develop and implement a rural development program

Strategy and Plans

Strategy for:

  • Financing development
  • Social development
  • Technical approach

Plans for:

  • Financing
  • Social development
  • Technical development
  • Implementation

Organization

Temporary:

  • Interface with government, residents, social agencies, etc.

Permanent:

  • Post development, social organization to continue to deal with social impacts

Implementation

  • Monitor and ameliorate impact of social and financial disruptions

Control of

  • Technical progress
  • Schedule
  • Costs
  • Funding

Project Category Class 3 - Urban Development

Project Objective

  • Develop and implement an urban development program

Strategy and Plans

Strategy for:

  • Financing development
  • Political approval
  • Marketing

Plans for:

  • Financing
  • Political approval
  • Construction phasing
  • Land acquisition

Organization

Temporary:

  • Planning/design
  • Political liaison.
  • Construction
  • Marketing

Permanent:

  • Property management

Implementation

  • Achieve and retain "political" support from elected officials and residents
  • Balance construction rate, financing and sales

Control of

  • Funding commitments
  • Leasing/selling
  • Cash receipts/disbursements
  • Construction progress
  • Development approvals
  • Land purchase

Project Category Class 4 - Organizational Change

Project Objective

  • Achieve a change in structure, staffing, system or style in an organization

Strategy and Plans

Strategy for:

  • Investment
  • Timing

Plans for:

  • Commitment for key staff
  • Organization's units to be included
  • Implementation of the change

Organization

Temporary:

  • Core group to interface with all affected groups
  • Participatory planning for transition to the new structure

Permanent:

  • Assume control after change is complete

Implementation

  • Commitment required from key leaders, followed by all affected persons
  • Management of potential conflicts as change occurs

Control of

  • Schedule
  • Costs
  • Progress and effectiveness of the required organizational change

Project Category Class 5 - Performance Turn-around

Project Objective

  • Within a defined period of time, turn a poor performance situation into a successful one

Strategy and Plans

Strategy for:

  • Capitalizing on existing strengths
  • Investment of resources

Plans for:

  • Resource investment
  • Staff utilization
  • Performance schedule and major review milestones

Organization

Temporary:

  • Require a clearly defined charter and control over resources
  • Establish the design of the new organizational approach

Permanent:

  • Assume operation after the turn-around is complete

Implementation

  • Establish an "esprit-de-corps" among members of the temporary task force
  • Ensure the acceptance of the changes by the group in question and the rest of the organization
  • Closely track performance with schedule

Control of

  • Financial investment and resulting projected revenue
  • Technical performance
  • Technical resources and personnel employed
  • Key schedule events and milestones

Project Category Class 6 New Venture

Project Objective

  • Successfully launch a new venture (business, product, etc.)

Strategy and Plans

Strategy for:

  • Financing venture
  • Product
  • Marketing

Plans for:

  • Financing
  • Production
  • Marketing/sales
  • Maintenance

Organization

Temporary:

  • Organizational development
  • Liaison with major technical, financial and marketing groups

Permanent:

  • Operate venture after startup

Implementation

  • Maintain coordination with support groups
  • Transition from development to operation is critical

Control of

  • Technical performance
  • Operational preparedness of backup units
  • Schedule progress
  • Costs
  • Revenue projections

Project Category Class 7 - Research and Development

Project Objective

  • Conduct research
  • Develop into a marketable product

Strategy and Plans

Strategy for:

  • Investment
  • Timing
  • Research direction
  • Timing

Plans for:

  • Staffing
  • Investment
  • Review points

Organization

Temporary:

  • R&D group maintain linkages with marketing and other support groups

Permanent:

  • Not usually applicable in this environment

Implementation

  • Must ensure continuous linkages between R&D functions
  • "Go/No-go" decision on development is critical and requires input from other units in organization

Control of

  • Technical progress costs
  • Revenue forecasts
  • Schedules for each phase
  • Linkages between phases
Appendix A  Appendix A
 

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