Putting it All Together
In our last graphic, Figure 8, we present the CAM2P Model as we map the PMBOK Guide process groups at both the project level and the phase level.
Figure 8: The process groups as they apply to the project and to each project phase
In our humble opinion, there are many issues with this confusion or misunderstanding, which could lead to major problems in managing projects.
Unfortunately there are no studies that can demonstrate the impact of this misuse on projects. We can only speculate that on small/simple projects it might be safe to treat the project as a single stage project with no significant impact. However, we are willing to state a controversial opinion here - in most moderate, large, or complex projects -- this confusion is leading to "challenged" if not "failed" projects. As we said, there are no studies specific to this point although there are numerous studies and literature that address project failure rates and state that a good percent of projects still fail. Failure has many causes and contributing factors; we are of the opinion and stress that lack of "proper" project management is a common cause and confusing the process groups constitutes a "lack of proper project management application".